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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Suggestions are made for theory development and future research incorporating situational as well as personality measures in longitudinal studies. Among those students who had been misperceived, the average of misperceptions was 4. These findings are typically explained in terms of the ambiguous meaning of many nonverbal and verbal cues P. People may be aling sexual interest when they smile, stand close, give a compliment, or pat someone of the opposite sex on the arm; however, they also may be aling friendship or attention.
Additionally, this study expands the Confluence model by adding a pathway focused on the role of alcohol. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed below and then the study is described. Two types of experimental research support the Lady looking sex Hilton studies described above. Both of these theoretical perspectives support the hypothesis that men set a lower threshold than women do for labeling behavior as sexual. For example, in a study conducted by Koukounas and Letchparticipants viewed a videotape of an interaction between a man and a woman. Similarly, C.
Johnson, Stockdale, and Saal found that male students perceived a female target as behaving in a sexier manner toward a male professor than did female students, regardless of the level of sexual harassment depicted in the interaction. Several lines of research have linked perceptions of sexual intent with alcohol consumption. There were main effects of participant gender and alcohol consumption such that men perceived their female partners as behaving more sexually than the women rated themselves, and participants who consumed alcohol rated themselves and their partners higher on sexuality measures than did sober participants.
In another line of research, participants read a vignette about a couple on a date. The authors of these studies suggest that their findings support the hypothesis that men may oversexualize the behavior of drinking women.
These stereotypes are likely to encourage some men to perceive any of friendliness from a drinking woman as a sexual come-on. This theory posits that two different constellations of traits and behaviors increase the likelihood that a man will commit sexual assault: hostile masculinity and impersonal sex. These proximal risk factors work independently and synergistically, such that men with high scores on both factors are hypothesized to be most likely to commit sexual assault Malamuth et al.
Men who score high on the hostile masculinity construct distrust women and enjoy dominating them Malamuth et al. They use sex as a way of demonstrating their power over women as opposed to viewing sex as an expression of love. Malamuth Lady looking sex Hilton colleagues suggested and found that the attitudes supporting coercion construct predicted the hostile masculinity construct. Men who score high on the impersonal sex construct prefer casual, uncommitted sexual relationships Malamuth et al. They view sex as a source of physical gratification rather than as part of an enduring, intimate relationship.
In support of this hypothesis, many researchers have found that perpetrators, in comparison to nonperpetrators, have consensual sex at an earlier age, have more dating and consensual sexual partners, and have more positive attitudes about casual sexual relationships Abbey et al. First, their large of dating partners creates more opportunities for misperception to occur.
The Confluence model also includes several distal factors that indirectly contribute to sexual assault because of their influence on hostile masculinity and impersonal sex. Growing up in a violent home environment is hypothesized to increase the likelihood of engaging in delinquent behaviors in adolescence, which in turn increases the likelihood of developing hostile attitudes toward women and an impersonal orientation toward sex Malamuth et al.
Men with histories of delinquency typically surround themselves with like-minded peers who reinforce their disparaging attitudes about women Abbey et al. Adolescent delinquency has been linked to sexual assault perpetration in community, college, and incarcerated samples of perpetrators Abbey et al. As noted above, risk factors in the Confluence model are hypothesized to have synergistic effects so that men with high scores on both hostile masculinity and impersonal sex should be most likely to commit sexual assault.
For example, Malamuth et al. Although many researchers have replicated the main effects described by the Confluence model, very few have included a test of the synergy hypothesis. Those researchers who report testing the interaction effect have found that it explains additional variance beyond the main effects of hostile masculinity and impersonal sex Malamuth et al. Median or tripartite splits are used to place men in high- or low-risk groups on each variable.
These are then summed and the relationship between the of high-risk scores and frequency of sexual assault is evaluated. The of these analyses have also supported the hypothesis that men with high scores on components of both hostile masculinity and impersonal sex commit the most sexual assaults. Although Malamuth and colleagues Lady looking sex Hilton employ risk analysis, we are not aware of any other researchers who have used this method. This study builds on past research in two ways. First, we applied Malamuth et al. As shown in Figure 1hostile masculinity and impersonal sex were hypothesized to be positively associated with frequency of misperception.
Second, a third pathway focused on alcohol consumption was evaluated. As can be seen in Figure 2we hypothesized alcohol consumption in dating and sexual situations to be positively associated with frequency of misperception. NOTE: Loadings are standardized. Dashed lines indicate nonificant pathways. All distal constructs were allowed to correlate; however, only ificant relationships are shown. As in Malamuth et al. The more strongly men endorsed attitudes that encourage violence toward women, the higher their scores were expected to be on hostile masculinity and impersonal sex.
The more acts of delinquency men committed in adolescence, the higher their scores were expected to be on impersonal sex and drinking in dating and sexual situations. The more strongly men endorsed stereotypes about drinking women, the higher their scores were predicted to be on hostile masculinity and drinking in dating and sexual situations.
Additionally, hostile masculinity, impersonal sex, and alcohol consumption in dating and sexual situations were hypothesized to have greater effects in combination than individually. Based on past research, this hypothesis was examined through interaction terms and through Lady looking sex Hilton analysis. Participants were male students from a large, urban university.
Students completed self-administered questionnaires in small groups of 2 to 5 individuals. Large classrooms were used so that participants could be seated far apart. The experimenter explained the information sheet and questions were individually answered.
After completing the survey, participants placed them in an unmarked envelope that they sealed and handed to the experimenter. Past researchers have been satisfied with this single-item measure of the of self-reported lifetime misperceptions presumably because they used it as one of many predictors of sexual assault. One of the strongest methods to demonstrate the validity of a measure is to show that it correlates ificantly with a behavioral criterion James, ; Ozer, Participants conversed for 20 minutes with a female confederate who was friendly and attentive but not flirtatious or sexual.
The interaction was Lady looking sex Hilton and trained observers coded the interaction. The outcome measure used in this study was ificantly associated with judgments made 1 month later by three different sets of raters: participants, confederates, and observers. The sexual attraction index was comprised of four items in which participants rated the extent to which the confederate was sexually attracted to them, wanted to date them, wanted to have sex with them, and wanted to participate in future studies with them.
These moderate effect sizes Cohen, are of comparable magnitude to those that have been accepted as evidence of criterion-related validity in meta-analyses C. This eight-item measure has been used by other researchers as an indicator of hostile masculinity and has been found to be internally consistent and to have strong convergent validity Malamuth, ; Malamuth et al.
The impersonal sex construct was operationalized behaviorally as having many sexual partners and attitudinally as holding positive attitudes about casual sex. Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption during dating and sexual situations were assessed with four items used in dating and sexual behavior studies Abbey et al.
First, participants were asked how often they drank alcohol when on a date and responded using a 6-point scale with options that ranged from 1 nearly every time or every time to 6 never. They were then asked how many drinks they usually consumed on a date and responded using an 8-point scale with options that ranged from 1 zero drinks to 8 13 or more drinks.
Two parallel items were asked about drinking when having sex. Frequency scores were reverse coded, and then quantity and frequency scores were multiplied. Responses to these items were multiplied to create a quantity by frequency measure of total volume of alcohol consumed. Frequency of misperception, of sexual partners, of one-time sexual partners, and usual alcohol consumption were skewed; thus, they were winsorized to three standard deviations above or below the mean so that the distribution of scores approximated the normal distribution Wilcox, Table 1 provides the winsorized means and standard deviations for all measures as well as the bivariate correlations between them.
All of the hypothesized predictor variables were ificantly correlated with frequency of misperception, although the magnitude of the correlations was modest. The two strongest bivariate correlations were with of casual sexual partners and hostile masculinity. The greater the of casual sex partners and the stronger the hostile masculinity, the higher was the frequency of misperception. RMSEA values less than. As can be seen in Table 2each of the concepts shown in Figure 1 was estimated with one to three observed indicators, many of them being multi-item scales.
All of the estimated standardized Lady looking sex Hilton were of reasonable magnitude, ranging from. The lambda for single-item measures was arbitrarily set at. NOTE: For single-item indicators, the construct loading was set at. For single indicators based on a multi-item scale, the construct loading was set at the square root of the reliability coefficient. Furthermore, attitudes that encourage violence toward women were ificantly positively related to hostile masculinity and impersonal sex.
Also, delinquency during adolescence was ificantly positively related to impersonal sex. Delinquency, stereotypes about drinking women, and usual alcohol consumption were all ificantly positively related to drinking in dating and sexual situations. Attitudes encouraging violence against women and stereotypes about drinking women were ificantly positively related to hostile masculinity. Contrary to hypothesis, only delinquency was ificantly related to impersonal sex. There were two nonificant pathways. Attitudes encouraging violence toward women and usual alcohol consumption were not ificantly related to impersonal sex.
In follow-up analyses in Lady looking sex Hilton the distal variables were allowed to have direct relationships with frequency of misperception, none of the betas were ificant and the fit of the model was not improved. The synergistic effects of the model were examined through traditional interaction effects and through risk factor analysis. Thus, we followed the lead of other Confluence researchers Malamuth et al. All variables were first standardized, and then composite scores for each construct were formed by averaging the standardized variable scores. On the second step, the two-way interaction terms were entered; and on the third step, the three-way interaction term was entered.
Frequency of misperception as a function of the interaction between impersonal sex and drinking in sexual situations. Tripartite splits were formed for hostile masculinity, impersonal sex, and drinking in dating and sexual situations. Participants were considered as having a high score on a risk factor if their score was in the top third of the distribution. The of high scores was summed to create a risk index with scores ranging from 0 not high on any proximal construct to 3 high score on all 3 proximal constructs.
To evaluate possible curvilinear effects, a quadratic term was also computed by squaring the risk index score. Hierarchical multiple regression was performed with frequency of misperception regressed on the risk index in the first step and on the quadratic term in the second step. The slope became steeper as the of risk factors increased from 1 to 2 and from 2 to 3, and men who scored in the highest third of the distribution on all three predictors reported the highest of misperceptions.
Frequency of misperception as a function of the of constructs on which participants scored in the upper third of the distribution. We extended this past research by examining attitudes toward women within the framework of the Confluence model Malamuth et al.
In a structural equation model, the effect Lady looking sex Hilton attitudes supporting violence against women on misperception was mediated Lady looking sex Hilton hostile masculinity. In further support of the Confluence model, impersonal sex was also positively related to frequency of misperception. They may intentionally make sexual overtures toward any woman who displays friendly behavior, knowing that some women will refuse them but that with enough attempts they will eventually be successful in their quest for sexual gratification.
These findings extend past research on the Confluence model by adding a path focused on alcohol consumption. A compelling aspect of the Confluence model is its emphasis on the synergy between different risk factors. Although some researchers have found that the interaction between hostile masculinity and impersonal sex explained additional variance Malamuth et al. In this study, the interaction between hostile masculinity and impersonal sex was not ificant, although the interaction between impersonal sex and drinking in dating and sexual situations was ificant.
Men with a highly impersonal sexual orientation who drink alcohol in potentially sexual situations may be most prone to developing self-fulfilling prophesies that link drinking with sex. Men who have strong desires to dominate women and to have frequent casual sexual relations and who are often intoxicated in dating and other potential sexual situations appear to be highly motivated to interpret any positive cue from a woman as a of sexual interest.
This study has several limitations that suggest directions for future research. Causal direction cannot be established with cross-sectional data. Prospective studies that follow men through adolescence and young adulthood are needed to examine how these beliefs develop and reinforce each other. The temporal links between hostile masculinity and impersonal sex are of particular interest. Are young men more likely to first develop negative attitudes about women and use them to justify impersonal sexual relationships or do they begin to have frequent sexual relationships and then develop negative attitudes toward women?
It is likely that there are feedback loops involved, such that some young men who hold traditional attitudes about women may treat their partners poorly, which may then lead to relationships low in intimacy and trust, which may then strengthen their negative attitudes about women. Another important temporal issue has to do with how the experience of misperception is resolved. Others may become resentful of women they misperceive, and this may strengthen their preexisting hostility toward women. Although the variables included in this study explained a ificant amount of variance in misperception frequency, they ed for a relatively small amount of the total variance.
Similarly, the fit of the model was good but not excellent. A few of the measures that are usually used to assess the Confluence model were not included in this study.Lady looking sex Hilton
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Why Do Some Men Misperceive Women’s Sexual Intentions More Frequently Than Others Do? An Application of the Confluence Model